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Others believe that they are such indispensable tools that they would not be able to live or work without them. When LUSH. Some of those animals end up dying before the experiment. Edit rating Delete rating 8. Connect with us. Animal testing is a completely unnecessary act of cruelty and should not be allowed for various reasons. Explain the process of making your favorite dessert.
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Yes No Thank you for your participation! Studylib Flashcards Online flashcards are a great way to study! Learn with extra-efficient algorithm, developed by our team, to save your time. Studylib Collections Combine documents, presentations and flashcards in study collections. Sign up and try it free. Related documents. Animal Farm Study Questions. Essay Topics. Animal Farm Chapter Four Questions. It would also be obvious to a normal 12 year old child An alternative, acceptable answer would be, none of those drugs because even drug D could cause damage to humans.
That is true, which is why Drug D would be given as a single, very small dose to human volunteers under tightly controlled and regulated conditions. Animal experiments only benefit human beings if their results are valid and can be applied to human beings. Moreover, a great deal of animal experimentation has been misleading and resulted in either withholding of drugs, sometimes for years, that were subsequently found to be highly beneficial to humans, or to the release and use of drugs that, though harmless to animals, have actually contributed to human suffering and death. Animal rights extremists often portray those who experiment on animals as being so cruel as to have forfeited any own moral standing.
But the argument is about whether the experiments are morally right or wrong. The general moral character of the experimenter is irrelevant. What is relevant is the ethical approach of the experimenter to each experiment. John P Gluck has suggested that this is often lacking:. The lack of ethical self-examination is common and generally involves the denial or avoidance of animal suffering, resulting in the dehumanization of researchers and the ethical degradation of their research subjects. The use of animals in research should evolve out of a strong sense of ethical self-examination.
Ethical self-examination involves a careful self-analysis of one's own personal and scientific motives. Moreover, it requires a recognition of animal suffering and a satisfactory working through of that suffering in terms of one's ethical values. The issue of animal experiments is straightforward if we accept that animals have rights: if an experiment violates the rights of an animal, then it is morally wrong, because it is wrong to violate rights. The possible benefits to humanity of performing the experiment are completely irrelevant to the morality of the case, because rights should never be violated except in obvious cases like self-defence.
And as one philosopher has written, if this means that there are some things that humanity will never be able to learn, so be it. This bleak result of deciding the morality of experimenting on animals on the basis of rights is probably why people always justify animal experiments on consequentialist grounds; by showing that the benefits to humanity justify the suffering of the animals involved.
Those in favour of animal experiments say that the good done to human beings outweighs the harm done to animals. This is a consequentialist argument, because it looks at the consequences of the actions under consideration. It can't be used to defend all forms of experimentation since there are some forms of suffering that are probably impossible to justify even if the benefits are exceptionally valuable to humanity. The consequentialist justification of animal experimentation can be demonstrated by comparing the moral consequences of doing or not doing an experiment. This process can't be used in a mathematical way to help people decide ethical questions in practice, but it does demonstrate the issues very clearly.
If performing an experiment would cause more harm than not performing it, then it is ethically wrong to perform that experiment. The harm that will result from not doing the experiment is the result of multiplying three things together:.
In the theoretical sum above, the harm the experiment will do to animals is weighed against the harm done to humans by not doing the experiment. So the equation is completely useless as a way of deciding whether it is ethically acceptable to perform an experiment, because until the experiment is carried out, no-one can know the value of the benefit that it produces. Most ethicists think that we have a greater moral responsibility for the things we do than for the things we fail to do; i.
For example: we think that the person who deliberately drowns a child has done something much more wrong than the person who refuses to wade into a shallow pool to rescue a drowning child. In the animal experiment context, if the experiment takes place, the experimenter will carry out actions that harm the animals involved.
If the experiment does not take place the experimenter will not do anything. This may cause harm to human beings because they won't benefit from a cure for their disease because the cure won't be developed. And so if we want to continue with the arithmetic that we started in the section above, we need to put an additional, and different, factor on each side of the equation to deal with the different moral values of acts and omissions.