You might therefore find it helpful to note the following points:. In all academic or professional fields, experts regard some ideas as common knowledge. This is generally defined as facts, dates, events and information that are expected to be known by someone studying or working in a particular field. The facts can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by many people: for example, that Margaret Thatcher was a British prime minister. Such information does not generally have to be referenced.
However, as a student you may only have just started to study a particular subject, so the material you are reading may not yet be common knowledge to you. In order to decide if the material you want to use in your assignment constitutes common knowledge, you need to ask yourself the following questions:.
In fact, it will help the reader identify the boundaries between your ideas and those collected from various sources. Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? To avoid confusion about your sources, try using different colored fonts, pens, or pencils for each one, and make sure you clearly distinguish your own ideas from those you found elsewhere. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. With block quotations, check the guidelines for the documentation system you are using. In fact, most realize that citing sources actually builds their credibility for an audience and even helps writers to better grasp information relevant to a topic or course of study. Here is how to start a research paper: Choose a topic and research it thoroughly.
To make it easier for you to decide exactly when you need to cite, use the following simple six-point code. This is another of those notes worth sticking to the side of your computer screen or pinning to the notice board above your desk. You now know when to cite a reference, but you also need to know how to cite the reference correctly. Different subjects will cite references using different systems, but there are two main methods:.
Footnotes are flagged in the main body of the text by a number and then the reference written in full at the bottom of the corresponding page. For example:. Endnotes should be referenced in exactly the same way except they are found all together at the end of a chapter or at the end of the book. For electronic sources, give the web page address and the date you downloaded the information. You should also cite the name of the reference and the original source if you have this information.
Like Harvard style, APA style uses the author-date system for in-text citations. In the in-text citations, you should cite the last names of all the authors and the publication year:. In the reference list, which follows the main text, you should cite your sources in full.
This is a bit more complicated than the in-text citations, as the format depends on the source type. TitleBook edition. In reference list: Porter, M. In reference list: Andreff, W.
Journal of Sports Economics, 1 3 , Year, Month Day. TitleArticle [Type]. In reference list: Worland, J. However, there are some great tools that can help you with this. You can use an APA citation generator , which will ask you to select your source type and fill in the required fields.
This tool will generate both the in-text and reference list citations for you. Another great way to ensure you have the correct citation for your reference list is to use Google Scholar. Just search for your source and click the quote icon to copy the citation using your citation style.
Once you are clear about this, all you are left with is how to eradicate from your work the accidental cases of plagiarism, focussing on organisation and processing. Most of these are due to poor organisation. Many of us leave ourselves inadequate time to get our work done, so we rush research and note taking and in the process blend the ideas of our authors into our own, not knowing which are which.
Inevitably when we come to write we pass them all off as our own. There are, therefore, simple things you can do to avoid this. But organisation is just one part of the remedy. Home Writing and referencing Referencing and avoiding plagiarism Referencing and avoiding plagiarism Many universities use Cite Them Right by Richard Pears and Graham Shields as their referencing standard. More information, tips and advice can be found in this section.
What is referencing? Citations You identify sources by citing them in the text of your assignment called citations or in-text citations and referencing them at the end of your assignment called the reference list or end-text citations.
The difference between reference lists and bibliographies The reference list only includes the sources cited in your text. Referencing successfully To reference successfully, it is essential that, as a matter of course, you systematically note down full details of author, date, title and publication details of any material you use at the time you use it.
What's the benefit of accurate referencing? Top What is plagiarism? The following are considered forms of plagiarism: Passing off as your own a piece of work that is partly or wholly the work of another student Citing and referencing sources that you have not used Quoting , summarising or paraphrasing material in your assignment without citing the original source 'Recycling' a piece of your own work that you have previously submitted for another module or course i.
How can you avoid plagiarism?
What is common knowledge? In order to decide if the material you want to use in your assignment constitutes common knowledge, you need to ask yourself the following questions: Did I know this information before I started my course? If the answer to either or both of the questions is 'no', then the information is not common knowledge to you.
There are easy ways to avoid plagiarism. Follow some simple steps while writing your research paper to ensure that your document will be free of plagiarism. A step-by-step guide to planning and writing a research paper ahead in order to avoid plagiarism and Professors hand out a class syllabus outlining the whole semester so you know what is required to pass the class.
Mistakes in citation and crediting can still happen, so here are certain practices that can help you not only avoid plagiarism, but even improve the efficiency and organization of your research and writing. Sometimes innocent, hard-working students are accused of plagiarism because a dishonest student steals their work.
This can happen in all kinds of ways, from a roommate copying files off of your computer, to someone finding files on a USB drive left in a computer lab. Here are some practices to keep your own intellectual property safe:. Kozol, Jonathan.
Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Safe Practices Summary: There are few intellectual offenses more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts.